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Organizational Change is defined as “any action or set of actions resulting in a shift in direction or process that affects the way an organization works. Change can be deliberate and planned by leaders within the organization (…), or can originate outside the organization (…) and be beyond its control”[1]. The first part…
He defines culture as “the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from others.”[1] For describing a national culture he developed a system of 5 dimensions which are Power distance (PD), Individualism (ID), Masculinity (MAS), Uncertainty avoidance (UA) and Long-Term Orientation.[2] The first four…
In Richard D. Lewis book “When Cultures Collide - Leading Across Cultures“, three different sorts of culture: Linear-Active Culture (LAC), Multi-Active Culture (MAC) and Reactive Culture (RAC) are described.[1] In a LAC, people are “task-orientated and highly organized planners”[2] who complete their tasks within a “given fixed time schedule”[3] on which they rely…
A company can offer their products in their home market and in foreign markets. The first market is the market in the home country. The second market is every market which is outside of the home country. If a company decides now to expand their activities abroad it is faced with new problems…